c. Examine the mouth and throat.
(1) Look at the lips, tongue, and mucous membranes, noting abnormalities
such as cuts, sores, or discoloration's.
(2) Observe the condition of the teeth. Note any discolored, cracked,
chipped, loose, or missing teeth.
(3) Observe the gums. Are they healthy and pink? Note the patient's
breath for unusual odors (fruity, foul, alcohol, and so forth).
1-16. EXAMINATION OF THE ABDOMEN
a. Physical examination of the abdomen involves visual inspection, auscultation,
and palpation. It is best to perform this examination while the patient is resting in a
supine position, knees slightly flexed to relax the abdominal muscles.
b. In order to facilitate the referencing of location, the abdomen is viewed as four
quadrants or nine regions. The quadrant division is the most commonly used by
nursing personnel. Refer to figure 1-3. The abdomen is divided by a vertical midline
and a horizontal line through the navel. Note the organs located in each quadrant.
Figure 1-4 illustrates the regional method of division. Again, note the organs underlying
1-17. VISUAL EXAMINATION
Begin the abdominal examination by visually inspecting the abdomen. Observe
a. Color. Pale? Jaundiced? Ruddy?
b. Pigmentation. Even? Note blotches or lines of pigmentation.
c. Contour. Symmetrical? Flat? Rounded? Sunken? Distended?
d. Presence of: Petechiae? Scars? Rash? Visible blood vessels?
e. Hair growth patterns.