(2) Elevated blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) are indicative
of the need for patient education in dietary habits, allowing for modification before
serious disease occurs.
(3) Measuring levels of serum enzymes can provide information about the
liver, the pancreas, and the patency of the biliary system. Enzymes tested include
amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT, SGPT, and LDH.
b. Nursing Implications.
(1) It is a nursing responsibility to ensure that the patient has had the
appropriate preparation. For example: a special diet or fasting.
(2) It is a nursing responsibility to be aware of the normal and abnormal
ranges of blood tests, in order to understand the significance of the test results.
Section IV. GASTROINTESTINAL INTUBATION
a. Gastric and intestinal intubation is the process of passing a tube through the
nose or mouth, through the esophagus, and into the stomach or intestine. A patient is
intubated for one or more of the following purposes:
To obtain specimens of gastric and intestinal contents for laboratory
(2) To relieve distention of the stomach or intestine, or to keep an
obstructed bowel empty.
(3) To gavage (tube feed) or to administer drugs to unconscious or
extremely weak patients.
(4) To lavage (wash out) the stomach prior to surgery, in the case of
poisoning, and some types of gastric disorders (bleeding, for example).
b. The intubation procedure is usually done by the professional nurse or
physician. Under conditions specified by local Department of Nursing policy, the
nursing paraprofessional may be authorized to intubate a patient.
1-26. TYPES OF TUBES
There are many different tubes with different names for different purposes. The
tube required for a specific treatment is ordered by the doctor. Since gastrointestinal
tubes are inserted into nonsterile body cavities, sterile technique is usually not required