(1) The basic problem is thought to be an electrical disturbance in the nerve
cells in one section of the brain, causing them to give off abnormal, recurrent,
uncontrolled electrical discharges that produce a seizure or convulsion.
(2) The underlying disorder may be structural, chemical, physiological, or a
combination of all three.
Factors that may predispose a patient to epilepsy/seizures.
(a) Trauma to the head/brain.
(b) Brain tumor.
Circulatory disorder, stroke.
Metabolic disorder (such as hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, or
(e) Drug/alcohol toxicity.
Infection (meningitis/brain abscess).
b. Grand Mal Seizure. (Characterized by three phases.)
(a) Consists of vague emotional changes (depression, anxiety,
Lasts for minutes to hours. Followed by an "aura."
(c) Aura is usually a sensory "cue" (odor or sound) or sensation "cue"
(weakness, numbness). It is related to the anatomical origin of the seizure, and warns
the patient that a seizure is imminent.
Preictal phase may or may not be present in all patients.
(a) Loss of consciousness.
(b) Skin may become cyanotic, breathing is spasmodic, jaws are tightly
clenched, and tongue and inner teeth may be bitten.
Urinary and fecal incontinence usually occur.