a. Causes of detached retina include:
Aging (slow process of deteriorating vision).
b. Signs and symptoms of retinal detachment include:
Flashes of light.
Sensations of "particles" or "lights" in the visual fields.
Progressive loss of peripheral vision.
c. Nursing implications:
(1) Detachment of the retina must be corrected surgically. There are many
different procedures used, but the objective of all is to seal the retinal holes, ensuring
that the retina adheres to the retinal pigment epithelium.
(2) Nursing care should involve all aspects of care for the patient
undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Refer to the following paragraphs for care of patients
undergoing ophthalmic surgery.
PREOPERATIVE NURSING CARE OF THE PATIENT UNDERGOING
The eye is a delicate and important organ, and its care and protection are of the
utmost importance. Common conditions of the eye that may require surgical
intervention include trauma, cataract, glaucoma, and detached retina. The
ophthalmologist will determine the treatment required and procedure of choice in each
patient's case. The procedure may vary from a simple incision to facilitate drainage to
total removal of the eyeball (enucleation).
a. Physical Orientation. The patient will require a thorough orientation to his
immediate hospital environment. This is done to help the patient during the
postoperative period, since he may be blind as a result of the procedure or the need for
the eyes to be patched.
(1) Assist the patient to learn details of his room such as the location of
furniture, doors, windows, and so forth.
(2) Familiarize the patient with the voices of those who will care for him after
surgery. Familiarize him with the daily sounds and noises in the environment, since he
will be more aware of sound without his vision.