(4) Prolonged sitting (to include with legs crossed at knees) and standing
can contribute to development of varicosities.
Wearing of constrictive clothing may also cause varicosities.
(6) Relaxation of smooth muscles, which is due to hormonal changes
during pregnancy, is also thought to contribute to the development of varicosities.
Varicosities are seen as dark blue or purplish swellings.
(8) The patient may complain of heavy and tired feelings in the legs or a
burning, cramping sensation.
c. Nursing implications include the following.
(1) Encourage the patient to lie down with her hips/legs elevated
periodically throughout the day.
(2) Inform the patient that elastic stockings applied before rising may
Inform the patient of proper nutritional habits to avoid constipation.
Inform the patient not to bear down with bowel movements.
(5) Inform the patient to avoid prolonged sitting or standing greater than 15
minutes without a change of position.
Inform the patient not to massage her legs.
(7) Inform the patient to discuss possible surgical treatment of varicosities if
a. Maternal acidosis refers to a complex disorder of carbohydrates, fat, and
protein metabolism caused primarily by a relative or complete lack of insulin secretion
by the beta cells of the pancreas. Although there is an overall improvement in the
perinatal outcome of the well-managed diabetic pregnancy, there is still a significant risk
for neonatal morbidity. The most common cause of fetal death associated with diabetes
is maternal acidosis. Possibilities of diabetes being present are:
Birth of a large baby over nine pounds.
Repetitive, spontaneous abortions.