(d) Vomiting, diarrhea.
(e) Polyuria or oliguria.
Maintain accurate input and output (I&O).
(b) Observe frequently for signs of dehydration or water intoxication.
b. Vitamin, Mineral, and Caloric Requirements.
(1) The newborn's rapid growth makes him especially vulnerable to dietary
inadequacies and iron deficiency anemia. Adequate vitamin intake is especially
important to support normal growth and metabolism. When the mother is
well-nourished throughout her pregnancy, the full-term neonate can be expected to
have adequate vitamin stores at birth. Calcium and iron are the two basic minerals that
are of particular importance in maintaining adequate nutrition.
(a) Calcium is essential for the rapid bone mineralization that takes
place during the first year of life, muscle contraction, blood coagulation, nerve irritability,
tooth development, and heart muscle action.
(b) Iron is an essential element needed for synthesis of hemoglobin
and cell metabolism.
(2) Due to the limited nutritional stores, newborns require vitamin and
mineral supplements. An infant may become hypoglycemic and require feeding sooner
than normal. His blood glucose is checked at one hour of age and if it is decreased, the
baby is first fed sips of water to ensure sucking swallowing coordination and is then fed
formula to increase calories and decrease utilization of glucose.
FIRST FEEDING FROM THE MOTHER
Signs of hunger are demonstrated by the infant searching for food, sucking
motions, and crying. The mother may begin to breast-feed at this time if she had
planned to breast-feed, her condition is stable, and she desires to feed the infant. See
figure 9-1 for common breast-feeding positions