b. More modern digital spot-images devices capture and store a digital image for
later review and printing as necessary. Modern picture archiving and communication
systems (PACS) provide the ability to store and recover patient images for an indefinite
period of time. The technique factors for modern equipment are set on the control panel
or on the spot-film device by pushing a preprogrammed button. All exposures and
techniques are now computer controlled to allow safe use of the equipment for patient
a. Modern fluoroscopic units incorporate computer controlled spot-film devices
that provide a virtually unlimited selection of spot-film arrangements. With an advent of
digital fluoroscopy and PACS, the use of serialography is obsolete. When using these
units, the specialist needs only to load/unload the cassettes into the spot film device and
the radiologist makes film position selections automatically.
b. This procedure, known as serialography, consists of making a number of
exposures in series. It may consist of exposing a series of radiographs using single-
exposure films or exposures may be made limiting the area of the projected image so
that a number of exposures can be recorded on a single film.
c. For instance, as shown in B, B1, and B2 of figure 1-2, the exposed area of the
fluoroscopic screen may be confined to half (or even less) the area the film. For the first
exposure, the film is moved in front of the non-protected portion of the fluoroscopic
screen so that only one portion of it is exposed to the radiation. Following this
exposure, it may be moved further so as to provide for exposures onto another portion
or it may be moved back into its storage position and subsequent exposures may be
made as fluoroscopic findings indicate their value.
d. An electrical or spring device is used to shift the film into the exposed
"window" of its storage tunnel so that one or more radiographic images will be produced
on each film.
SERIAL FILM CHANGERS
The serial film changer is mostly obsolete due to the use of digital radiology
systems. Digital images are captured by biplane digital imaging plates at a rate set by
the technologists and controlled by computer. Individual images can then be store in a
PACS or printed on a laser printer. The following is provided for those facilities that have