the cortex layer, it once again becomes coiled and here is known as the distal
(3) Filtration/reabsorption. Except for the blood cells and the larger proteins,
the fluid portion of the blood passes through the walls of the glomerulus into the cavity
between the two layers of the renal capsule. This fluid is called the glomerular filtrate.
By a process of taking back (resorption), the majority of the fluid is removed from the
tubules and the concentrated fluid is called the urine.
d. The Collecting Tubule. The distal convoluted tubules of several nephrons
empty into a collecting tubule. The urine is then passed from the collecting tubule at the
papilla of the medullary pyramid. Several collecting tubules are present in each
e. Renal Pelvis. The renal pelvis is a hollow sac within the sinus of the kidney.
Urine from the pyramids collects into the funnel-shaped renal pelvis. The ureter then
drains the urine from the renal pelvis.
The ureters are tubes which connect the kidneys to the urinary bladder. The
smooth muscle walls of the ureters produce a peristalsis (wave-like movement) that
moves the urine along drop by drop.
8-5. URINARY BLADDER
a. The urinary bladder is a muscular organ for storing the urine. Near the
inferior posterior corners of the urinary bladder are openings where the ureters empty
into the bladder. Also at the inferior aspect of the urinary bladder is the exit, the
beginning of the urethra. The triangular area, between the openings of the ureters and
the urethra, is called the trigone, or base of the urinary bladder.
b. The urinary bladder wall is stretchable to accommodate varying volumes of
c. Nerve endings called stretch receptors are found in the wall of the urinary
bladder. Usually, the pressure within the urinary bladder is low. However, as the
volume of the enclosed urine approaches the bladder's capacity, stretching of the wall
stimulates the stretch receptors. The cycle of events controlling urination (voiding or
emptying of the urinary bladder) is known as the voiding reflex.
The urethra is a tube which conducts the urine from the urinary bladder to the
outside of the body. It begins at the anterior base of the urinary bladder.