arthropod-borne diseases. Practices, which should be specifically avoided, include
wearing of shorts and short-sleeved shirts, wearing of skintight uniforms, and use of
blousing rubbers or rings on trousers.
(3) Immunization/chemoprophylaxis. At the present time, we have
immunizations for yellow fever, plague, typhoid, cholera, and epidemic typhus; however,
these immunizations must be administered at specified times prior to deployment to be
effective. Chemoprophylaxis in the form of chloroquine-primaquine tablets is available
for malaria control.
(4) Personal protective devices. Repellents such as DEET offer protection
against bites from mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, chiggers and many other arthropods when
applied to exposed skin and where the uniform fits tight. Permethrin is a clothing
impregnant which affords similar repel lent protection. The misguided use of dog or cat
flea/tick collars by humans as repel lent devices must be prevented. These devices are
toxic to humans. Aerosol insecticides, such as pyrethrin, resmethrin, and d-phenothrin,
are available to control flying insects. Mechanical exclusion of pests can be effected by
use of bednets and headnets.
(5) Avoidance techniques. The last of the personal protective measures
involves a combination of education and common sense. One of the most effective
methods of preventing vector-borne diseases is to avoid, when practical, those areas
inhabited by the vector or reservoirs of disease, be it arthropod, reptile, mammal, etc.
This involves educating personnel on those vectors that may be encountered in an
area, the diseases they carry, and their biologies, e.g. feeding habits, life cycle, habitat.
b. Unit (Echelon I). Under provisions of AR 40-5, the unit commander of each
company size or equivalent unit will appoint a field sanitation team. This team is
responsible for conducting special control operations essential to the establishment of a
healthful environment. It also provides the capability of controlling animal reservoirs,
disease vectors, and other unit area environmental sanitation hazards.
(1) Organization. The commander of each company, battery, or similar unit
required to perform field duties will appoint a field sanitation team. Medical specialists
(91B) organic or attached to deployed units will be trained and will function as the unit
field sanitation team. If medical personnel are not available, two soldiers will be
selected and trained, one of who must be a noncommissioned officer.
(2) Duties. The role of the field sanitation team is to aid the unit commander
in protecting troop health by advising and assisting in the many time-consuming duties
essential to the establishment and maintenance of a healthful environment. By means
of performance, instruction, supervision, assistance, inspection, and reporting, the field
sanitation team ensures that appropriate field sanitation facilities are established and
maintained and that effective sanitation and protective methods are practiced by the
troops. This role may be categorized both as basic sanitation and as arthropod and
rodent control. The duties as they relate to arthropod and rodent control are as follows: