c. Sanitation. Milk is an extremely perishable product and an excellent media
for microbial growth. Sanitation policies and procedures must be constantly reviewed to
ensure that the possibilities for contamination are eliminated. Food sanitation education
must be provided on a recurring basis to all personnel handling milk.
d. Refrigeration. Storage temperature is the most important factor in
maintaining the quality of pasteurized dairy products. For chilled products, the ideal
storage temperature range is from 32 to 40F (0 to 4C). For frozen products, the
ideal storage temperature range is from 0 to -10F (-18 to -23C).
e. Thermal Processing. Two benefits are realized by thermal processing,
which is the application of heat to the product. First, all disease-causing
microorganisms (pathogens) can be destroyed through exposure to a high enough
temperature over a long enough period of time. This process is termed pasteurization.
Secondly, the deterioration of milk can be slowed and the shelf-life extended by
destroying nonpathogenic spoilage microorganisms as well. This produces sterilized
milk or aseptically processed milk.
1-8. DAIRY PRODUCTS
a. General Definition. Dairy products may generally be defined as products
derived from the milk of the cow and, in some cases, other milk-producing animals.
b. Classes of Dairy Products. For military purposes, dairy products are
subdivided into three classes: fresh dairy products, frozen desserts, and manufactured
dairy products. Section II of this lesson will discuss fresh dairy products; section III will
discuss frozen desserts; and section IV will discuss manufactured dairy products.
Section II. FRESH DAIRY PRODUCTS
1-9. FRESH DAIRY PRODUCTS
a. Description of Fresh Dairy Products. Fresh dairy products are all items
described in Part II, Section I, paragraph N, of the "Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
(PMO) - 1993, Recommendation of the United States Public Health Service." These
milk products include cream, light cream, light whipping cream, heavy cream, heavy
whipping cream, whipped cream, whipped light cream, sour cream, acidified sour
cream, cultured sour cream, half-and-half, sour half-and-half, acidified sour
half-and-half, cultured half-and-half, reconstituted or recombined milk and milk products,
concentrated milk, concentrated milk products, skim milk, lowfat milk, frozen milk
concentrate, eggnog, buttermilk, cultured buttermilk, cultured milk, cultured lowfat milk,
cultured skim milk, yogurt, lowfat yogurt, nonfat yogurt, acidified milk, acidified lowfat
milk, acidified skim milk, low-sodium milk, low-sodium lowfat milk, low-sodium skim milk,
lactose-reduced milk, lactose-reduced lowfat milk, lactose-reduced skim milk,