(2) Romano. Romano cheese is a very hard cheese which may be made
from the milk of a goat or a ewe. In the United States it is made from cow's milk. It is
usually made round, about 10 inches in diameter and 6 inches thick, and weighs
between 15 and 20 pounds. Manufacture of Romano cheese is similar to Parmesan
cheese and after curing for about a year can be used as a grated cheese. It can be
used as a table cheese after curing only 5 to 8 months.
c. Hard. Hard varieties of natural cheese contain a higher moisture content
than very hard cheeses. Hard cheese may be eaten fresh or after it has been cured. If
hard cheeses are made from unpasteurized milk, they must be cured at least 60 days at
a temperature of not less than 35F (2C) before they can be marketed. "American" is a
descriptive term used in the dairy industry to denote such hard cheeses as Cheddar,
Colby, Granular, and Soaked Curd.
(1) Cheddar. Cheddar cheese, which originated in Somersetshire, England,
and which is made from whole fresh milk, accounts for about 75 percent of all cheese
manufactured in the United States. One step in the manufacture of Cheddar cheese is
to mat the curd by stacking curd upon curd and allowing them to knit together. This
process is called cheddaring. After the curd is cheddared, it is milled, salted, hooped,
pressed, and ripened (cured) for varying periods of time.
(2) Granular (stirred) cheese. Granular or stirred curd cheeses are similar to
Cheddar except the curd is not matted or milled. The curd is cut, stirred, and heated (as
in Cheddar); then the curd is alternately stirred and drained. The curd is salted and
continuously stirred until it is of the proper texture. It is then hooped and pressed like
(3) Colby. Colby cheese is similar to Cheddar and Granular types.
However, it has a softer body and more open texture than Cheddar. The steps in
manufacturing are similar to Granular cheese. The one major difference is that cold
water is added to the Colby cheese to cool the curd after part of the whey has been
(4) Swiss. Swiss cheese is a hard cheese with characteristic gas holes or
"eyes." Swiss cheese is usually made in "wheels" about 36 inches in diameter, 6 inches
thick, and 185 to 210 pounds in weight. Several types of organisms are used in the
starter with propionic acid-forming organisms responsible for the formation of the
characteristic gas holes. After the milk has been inoculated with the starter, it is allowed
to set about 30 minutes. The creamy layer on top is then pushed back and mixed with
the curd at a later time. The curd is cut, forked, cooked, stirred, and dipped out of the
kettle in a large cloth. The curd is then hooped and pressed. Special temperatures are
used for curing to produce proper eye formation. The kettles used by the Swiss are
usually made of copper because the cheesemakers in Switzerland consider copper
necessary in the production of Swiss cheese. However, excellent Swiss cheese can be
made in stainless steel kettles.