2-19. PREVENTIVE TREATMENT
Preventive treatment includes all measures used to prevent disease.
a. Preventive procedures include sanitary measures such as cleanliness, proper
waste disposal, inspection of food and food handlers, isolation diseased individuals,
aseptic surgical technique, and the use insecticides of and rodenticides to control
vectors of disease.
b. Another preventive measure is immunization. Active immunity is the result of
a direct introduction into the individual's body of an antigenic preparation (frequently
bacteria or viruses) so that an individual produces his own antibodies that defend him
against the particular antigen introduced. Passive immunity is produced by injecting
serum-containing antibodies into an individual. This blood serum may be from animals
or humans in which the antibodies were produced by an active immunity process.
c. A third preventive measure consists of preventive psychiatry and mental
health work, in which the individual or his environment is manipulated in a manner to
prevent excessive mental stress.
2-20. CORRECTIVE/SYMPTOMATIC TREATMENT
People who have some disease or condition want to receive prompt medical
treatment. Many people believe that the use of prescribed medications is the only way
to ensure that a disease or condition will be cured or improved. The use of drugs does
have an important role in the treatment of disease; however, other treatment methods
are available. For example, rest, radiotherapy, and physical therapy are very useful in
the treatment of certain conditions. In many cases, various treatment methods are used
to benefit the patient.
a. Rest prevents overwork of a diseased organ and includes more than freedom
from physical work; a patient must have mental rest also.
b. Diet is of extreme importance both in the prevention of disease and in medical
care. An adequate intake of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals is
necessary in the treatment of all patients. Patients with fever generally require
increased amounts of all dietary constituents. Patients with certain diseases require
diets in which the various dietary constituents are carefully controlled. One example of
a special diet of this type is that for diabetes mellitus, in which the amounts of protein,
fat, and carbohydrates must be individually regulated.
c. Nursing care is another essential part of medical care. In addition to doing
technical procedures such as administering drugs, nursing service personnel watch for
the appearance of changes in the patient's condition. Frequently the personalities of
such personnel will be an important factor in promoting the patient's morale, securing
his cooperation, and fostering in him a desire to get well.