3-4. THEATER BLOOD MANAGEMENT IN THE TO
a. The theater of operations (TO) is a geographical location that includes land, air,
and sea-based operations necessary for accomplishment of the military objective and
administration of the military operation. The TO is divided into three major regions, the
Combat Zone (CZ), the Communication Zone (COMMZ), and the Zone of Interior
(CONUS). Health service support (HSS) echelons of care provide integrated medical
support throughout the TO.
b. The Health service support system is a single integrated system. It begins at
the forward line of own troops (FLOT) and ends in CONUS. The system entails the
effective medical regulation of sick, injured, and wounded patients in the shortest
possible time to the medical treatment facilities (MTFs) or elements (MTE - USAF) that
can provide the required treatment. All sick, injured, and wounded patients are
regulated and evacuated without regard to lateral or rear boundaries. Health service
support involves delineation of support responsibility by geographical area. The
effectiveness of the system is measured by its ability to return soldiers to duty.
c. The Army's HSS system in a TO is organized into unit, division, corps, and
echelons above corps (EAC) which extend throughout the theater (see figure 3-1).
(1) Echelon I (Unit).
(2) Echelon II ( Division).
(3) Echelon III (Corps).
(4) Echelon IV (COMMZ).
(5) Echelon V (EAC).
d. Available blood products (see table 3-1) and Theater Army blood capabilities
(1) Echelon I - no blood products.
(2) Echelon II.
(a) Blood products: Group O RBCs.
(b) Methods of operation: Blood storage and transportation refrigerators
(thermostabilizers) will be used to transport blood from the forward supply platoon (FSP)
to Echelon II medical units. The FSP will be resupplied by the blood bank platoon at the
medical battalion, logistics (forward) using iced blood boxes.