1-29. VARIABLES RELATING TO THE TRANSCULTURAL ASPECTS OF NURSING
Some of the factors are:
a. Cultural background of the nurse; differences and similarities between the
patient and the nurse.
b. Definition of health and illness accepted by a specific culture; concepts
relating to the causes of illness and injury.
c. Folk medicine practices.
d. Attitudes toward health care, relationships, and interactions (e.g., personal
space, eye contact).
e. Economic level of the patient and family (socioeconomic status).
f. Environmental factors and related disorders (e.g., ghetto living, lead
g. Specific names and terms related to the illness or disorder (e.g.,"bad blood,"
"mal ojo"); use of slang.
h. Language differences between the health care staff and the patient and
Modesty and concept of the human body.
j. Reactions to pain, aging, and death.
k. Attitudes about childbirth, abortion, sexual expression, children born to
unmarried parents, and homosexuality.
Attitudes about mental illness and retardation.
m. Diets in relation to religious and cultural practices; dietary taboos.
n. Attitudes about physical appearance and obesity; adaptation to special
o. Importance of religion and religious practices.
p. Religious practices in illness and death; specific prohibitions.