d. Influenza Virus Vaccine. The influenza virus vaccine is a suspension of
inactivated viruses grown in chick embryos. The preparations in military supply
channels are bivalent; that is, each contains two prevalent strains of influenza virus.
This vaccine produces only partial immunity, and it must be injected each year, about
1 month before the beginning of the respiratory disease season (usually October in
CONUS). Injection is either intramuscular or subcutaneous. Local and systemic
reactions to this vaccine are common, but usually mild. However, it may cause toxic
reactions in children. It is contraindicated in persons allergic to egg protein.
e. Live Attenuated Measles. Attenuated strains of measles virus are grown in
cell culture and freeze-dried. The preparation available in military supply channels
generally produces an asymptomatic infection, which results in long term immunity to
measles (rubeola, not German measles, rubella). The route of administration is IM or
SC. Contraindications include leukemia, age under 9 months, febrile respiratory illness
or other active infection, and pregnancy. It should be deferred in children who have
received immune serum globulin or a blood transfusion within the past 6 weeks.
f. Live Mumps Virus Vaccines. Mumps vaccine is prepared from chick
embryos infected with mumps virus. The route of administration is IM.
Contraindications include age under 1 year; pregnancy; allergy to eggs, chicken, or
neomycin; or any active infection or other condition depressing the normal defense
mechanisms. It should not be administered at the same time as other immunization.
Allow 1 month to pass between elective immunizations.
g. Live Rubella Virus Vaccine. Attenuated strains of rubella virus, of duck cell
tissue origin, are freeze-dried. The vaccine, given subcutaneously, produces a
systemic infection, tolerated well by children, but sometimes causing fever and
arthralgia in adults. The result is perhaps long-term immunity to rubella (German
measles). The vaccine must not be given to pregnant women, or the fetus may be
infected. In seronegative females, it must be assured that no pregnancy will begin
within the next three months. Some physicians prefer to give the vaccine only to
NOTE: A live measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine is also available. It is used to
produce active immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella virus and is
h. Rabies Vaccine. Rabies vaccine is a dried preparation of killed rabies
viruses obtained from duck embryos that have been infected with fixed rabies virus.
Individuals suspected of having rabies are given daily subcutaneous injections for 14
consecutive days. Complete instructions for its use are provided by the manufacturer.