c. Promethazine hydrochloride (Phenergan), discussed elsewhere with the
antihistamines, has antihistaminic and highly sedative properties, which are sometimes
employed to enhance the action of analgesics given concurrently. It may be used for
sedation both before and after an operation.
d. The following two mildly sedative drugs are used mainly on senile clients.
They are used to relieve headaches and muscle spasms and in conjunction with other
drugs to treat arthritis and angina pectoris.
Hydroxyzine hydrochloride (Atarax).
Hydroxyzine pamoate (Vistaril).
e. In addition to their use as antipsychotic tranquilizers, the following drugs are
also used as antiemetics to control mild or severe nausea and vomiting:
(1) Prochlorperazine maleate (Compazine). The antiemetic effects of this
drug are equal to those of a dose of chlorpromazine five times as large. The side
effects are generally mild; extrapyramidal symptoms may occur, but they can usually be
relieved by reduction of the dose, concurrent administration of an antiparkinsonism
drug, or temporary withdrawal of the drug. Prochlorperazine edisylate (Compazine
Ethanedisulfonate) can be injected IM, as well as given orally. Prochlorperazine
(Compazine) suppositories are given rectally.
(2) Thiethylperazine maleate (Torecan). This weakly tranquilizing agent is
used to treat nausea and vomiting.
f. Trimeprazine tartrate (Temaril) has both antipruritic and tranquilizing
properties. An antipruritic is a drug that relieves or prevents itching.
3-18. RELATED ANTIDEPRESSANTS
The drugs listed below are pharmacologically similar to the group of
antipsychotic tranquilizers called phenothiazines, but they are used in less potent doses
to improve the state of mind of severely depressed clients. The side effects, also
similar, may include dry mouth, constipation, weakened bladder, blurred vision, and
increased pressure within the eye. Allergies may be revealed by symptoms such as
skin rash and itching. Orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension), low blood
pressure when the client sits up or stands up, may occur. The client may feel weak and
drowsy. Doses of these drugs, at first smaller than ordinary, are gradually built up until
therapeutic effects are observed or the maximum dose is reached. Usually, it takes 1-3
weeks to observe any improvement in a severely depressed client. Therapy may
continue as long as 3 months, after which the drug should be gradually withdrawn.
These drugs probably do not cause physical dependence.