(a) Spinal/subarachnoid. Anesthetic is injected into the cerebral
spinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space; anesthetics from the umbilicus downward.
(b) Epidural block. Anesthetic is injected into the epidural space;
anesthetizes from the umbilicus downward.
NOTE: The choice of using a spinal/subarachnoid anesthetic versus an epidural block
is based on the factors stated in paragraph 2-5.
Axillary block. Used to anesthetize an upper extremity.
Definition. Administration of anesthetic directly into the tissues.
How used. Local anesthetic can be injected intradermally or applied
topically to the mucous membranes in the nasopharynx, mouth, vagina, and/or rectum.
Section IV. REASONS FOR SURGERY
There are many reasons for surgery and many kinds of operations.
Nevertheless, surgery may be classified as elective, urgent, or emergency.
Elective surgery is surgery that the patient chooses to have. It is performed
for his well being, but is not absolutely necessary. In elective surgery, the physician and
patient agree on a time for the surgery. It could be scheduled one day or six months in
advanced. For example, a mother with four school children wants to have a face-lift.
She will probably schedule her surgery during the summer months when the children
are out of school.
Urgent surgery is essential for health, such as the removal of an inflamed
appendix. Urgent surgery is always essential, but not always an emergency. Another
type of urgent surgery is breast surgery for a malignancy.
At the other extreme is emergency surgery. This surgery is unscheduled
and is done immediately to save a patient's life or limb. The need for this type of
surgery is sudden and unexpected. Bullet wounds, stabbings, and car accidents often
require emergency surgery.