a. Symptoms may include nasal congestion and discharge, sneezing, sore
throat, fever, chills, and malaise. Nasal congestion causes pressure that results in
headache. As a cold progresses, a cough may develop. Symptoms last about 1-2
weeks if the infection remains uncomplicated.
b. Treatment is symptomatic, involving the use of analgesics, decongestants,
and expectorants. Warm salt-water gargles may relieve sore throat pain. Adequate
rest, plenty of fluids, and vitamin C are routinely included in the treatment of a cold.
2-34. CARE FOLLOWING SURGERY OF THE NOSE
a. Surgery of or through the nose may be required to correct the results of
trauma to the nose and related structures; to correct deformities that interfere with
breathing, such as a deviated septum, hypertrophy of the turbinates, or polyps; and to
relieve the effects of sinusitis. Surgery of the nose may also be done for cosmetic
b. Epistaxis is usually the most serious complication of surgery of the nose. If
bleeding occurs postoperatively, attempt to control the bleeding with compression of the
nostrils and utilization of cold compresses. If nasal packing is in place, bloody sputum
or bloody vomit may be considered signs of nasal bleeding. The nursing personnel
must be alert for excessive or continuous bleeding, restlessness, breathing
irregularities, cyanosis, and tachycardia. If these signs and symptoms are noted, the
professional nurse must be notified immediately. If the physician must be called, make
ready a head mirror, light, nasal speculum, packing forceps, and packing material.
c. Quite often, the patient's nose will be packed at the termination of the surgery.
This may cause an intense fear of suffocation. The patient must be reassured that
mouth breathing will supply sufficient air. Continued mouth breathing will cause dryness
of the lips and mouth. Ointment such as petrolatum should be applied to the patient's
lips and fluids given as tolerated to moisten the mouth. The patient may have the urge
to blow his nose to relieve the sense of fullness caused by the packing. Instruct the
patient not to blow his nose, as this may cause bleeding and would be ineffective in
relieving the sense of fullness.
2-35. TONSILLECTOMY AND ADENOIDECTOMY
a. Removal of the tonsils and adenoids is indicated in cases of recurrent
infections or in cases of swelling that threatens to obstruct the airway.
b. Postoperative nursing management involves maintenance of a patent airway
and observation for bleeding and aspiration.
(1) If the operation was done under a local anesthetic, place the patient in a
sitting position to maintain airway patency.