e. Medical management of heart failure is twofold. The first concern of
treatment is to stabilize the failure, relieving the edema and congestion. The second
concern is to discover and treat the underlying cause of the failure.
f. Nursing care of the patient with heart failure involves two major areas:
nursing intervention during the acute phase of illness and patient education to prepare
the patient for discharge.
During the acute phase, nursing considerations include the following:
(a) Monitoring fluid retention by weighing the patient daily.
(b) Monitoring intake and output.
Frequent assessment of vital signs.
(d) Frequent monitoring of electrolytes.
(e) Promoting mental and physical rest to reduce the workload of the
(f) Administration of prescribed medications to improve the heart's
effectiveness as a pump.
Administration of prescribed dietary restrictions (sodium and fluids).
Patient education should include the following nursing considerations:
(a) Instruction on effective coping mechanisms that will reduce stress
in daily living.
Compliance in following the prescribed dietary and fluid restrictions.
(d) The importance of regular check-ups.
a. Hypertension (HTN) is defined as persistent levels of blood pressure with the
systolic pressure greater than 150 mmHg and the diastolic pressure greater than 90
mmHg. Hypertension is a major cause of heart failure, kidney failure, and stroke.