b. Examine the sinuses for tenderness. Avoiding the eyes, use the fingertips to
direct manual pressure upward over the frontal sinuses. With the thumbs, direct
pressure upward over the lower edge of the maxillary bones to examine the maxillary
MOUTH AND THROAT
a. When examining the mouth and throat, begin with a general observation of
the voice quality. Are raspines or hoarseness detected in the voice? Make a note of
the breath odor. Observe the lips for moisture, color, and the presence of abnormalities
such as masses, lesions, or discolorations.
b. Using a tongue depressor and penlight, examine the inside of the mouth.
Note the number and condition of the teeth.
(2) Note the color and texture of the gums and look for the presence of
swelling or discharge.
Observe the pharynx, looking for masses, exudate, or inflammation.
Observe the tonsils for inflammation or exudate.
(5) Observe the protruded tongue for size, color, moisture, symmetry, and
the presence of any abnormal lesions.
a. The normal resting adult breathes 16-20 times per minute. Except for an
occasional deeper breath (sigh), breathing is maintained at a fairly regular rate, rhythm,
and depth. Any disease or injury that affects the respiratory system, the chest wall, or
the oxygen carrying ability of the blood will usually affect the respiratory rate or the
effort required to breathe. If breathing movements are painful, breathing may become
irregular or the patient may be reluctant to take a breath of sufficient depth to aerate the
b. When observing a patient's respirations, the following should be noted.
Rate. The number of breathes per minute.
Rhythm. The pattern or regularity of the breathing.
Depth. Shallow or deep inspiration.