Other causes for amenorrhea must be ruled out, such as:
(b) Stress (severe emotional shock, tension, fear, or a strong desire for
(c) Chronic illness (tuberculosis, endocrine disorders, or central
nervous system abnormality).
(e) Excessive exercise.
b. Nausea and Vomiting (Morning Sickness).
Usually occurs in early morning during the first weeks of pregnancy.
(2) Usually spontaneous and subsides in 6 to 8 weeks or by the twelfth to
sixteenth week of pregnancy.
(3) Hyperemesis gravidarum. This is referred to as nausea and vomiting
that is severe and lasts beyond the fourth month of pregnancy. It causes weight loss
and upsets fluid and electrolyte balance of the patient.
(4) Nausea and vomiting are unreliable signs of pregnancy since they may
result from other conditions such as:
(a) Gastrointestinal disorders (hiatal hernias, ulcers, and appendicitis).
(b) Infection (influenza and encephalitis).
Emotional stress, upset (anxiety and anorexia nervosa).
c. Frequent Urination.
Frequent urination is caused by pressure of the expanding uterus on the
It subsides as pregnancy progresses and the uterus rises out of the
(3) The uterus returns during the last weeks of pregnancy as the head of the
fetus presses against the bladder.