d. Callus. A usually painless thickening of skin caused by repeated pressure or
irritation. This is caused by repeated injury to skin, particularly on the feet and may be
caused by excessive perspiration, increased heat, friction of clothing, or poorly fitting
(1) Signs and symptoms. A rough, thickened area of skin that appears after
repeated pressure or irritation.
Soften callus in warm water.
(b) Rub thickened area with pumice stone, sandstone, or sandpaper.
Use callus pads to reduce pressure on irritated area.
Do not wear shoes that fit poorly.
(b) Avoid activities that create constant pressure on specific skin areas.
Use callus pads to reduce pressure on irritated areas.
e. Chafing. A superficial inflammation which develops when skin is subjected to
friction from clothing or adjacent skin--may occur at underarm, groin, anal region, or
between digits of hands and feet, or at the neck or wrists. Chafing is caused by friction
from contact with another surface such as tight-fitting clothing, shoes, or another area of
(1) Signs and symptoms. Include local pain, tenderness, and/or redness of
skin at areas of friction.
(2) Treatment. Relief may be obtained by liberal application of petroleum
jelly to the affected area.
(a) Eliminate potential causes such as tight-fitting shoes, shorts, or
(b) Prior to beginning activity, apply petroleum jelly to parts of the body
which may be most likely to become chafed (areas include inside of thighs, groin, and