Thoracic spine. Palpate for deformity or tenderness without moving the
Breath sounds. Listen to both front and back of chest and both sides.
(5) Apical pulse. This can be taken by listening to the patient's heartbeat
and counting the rate.
External. Observe for sounds and/or distension, palpate lightly for
(2) Lumbar spine. Palpate for deformity or tenderness without moving the
patient or risking spinal injury.
(3) Pelvis. Gently compress the pelvis with your hands covering the
patient's hip joint and iliac crest, inspect for tenderness, discoloration, and incontinence.
(See figure 1-14.)
Figure 1-14. Testing pelvis for compression pain.
Femoral pulse. Check for presence and bilateral equality.
f. Lower Extremities.
(1) Legs. Inspect and palpate for bleeding, tenderness, deformity,
discoloration, contusions, etc.
(2) Pedal pulses. Palpate both feet for either dorsalis pedis pulse or
posterior tibial pulse. (See figures 1-15, 1-16, and 1-17.)