Loss of function.
Shortening of an extremity.
1-45. CLASSIFICATION OF FRACTURES
a. A great amount of soft tissue damage often accompanies a fracture. A
fracture that is associated with a large amount of nerve, blood vessel, and soft tissue
damage is called a complicated fracture. A fracture without other damage would be
referred to as an uncomplicated fracture. The nature and extent of the damage
depends upon the type and direction of the force causing the fracture. The direction of
the force that causes the injury will also determine the direction of the fracture line. The
following terms describe the direction of the fracture line in relation to the bone's
Linear. A fracture line that runs parallel to the bone's axis.
(2) Longitudinal. A fracture line that runs along the length of, but not parallel
to, the bone's axis.
Transverse. A fracture line that runs across, or at a right angle to, the
Oblique. A fracture line that slants across the bone.
(5) Spiral. A fracture line that runs across the bone at an oblique angle and
coils or spirals around the bone.
b. Fractures are primarily classified as open or closed.
(1) Open. An open, or compound fracture is one in which there is an open
wound associated with the fracture site.
(2) Closed. In a closed, or simple fracture, there is no break in the skin
associated with the fracture.
c. Fractures are further classified according to the condition of the bone, as
Complete. The bone is completely broken or split apart.