GROUND EVACUATION VEHICLES
Section I. GROUND AMBULANCES
Ground ambulances are motor vehicles designed to carry casualties. The
ground ambulances operating in forward areas of the combat zone possess mobility
and survivability comparable to the units being supported. Each ground ambulance
normally has a crew of two medical specialists. The medical specialist assigned as the
driver is responsible for care and maintenance of the vehicle, including reporting major
defects to the motor sergeant. He also prepares the ambulance for loading and
unloading casualties. The other medical specialist (the assistant driver) checks the
casualties upon arrival at the pickup site and renders emergency medical treatment en
route to the medical treatment facility. Medical specialists are trained to perform both
functions and their duties are interchangeable.
GENERAL RULES FOR LOADING AND UNLOADING GROUND
Follow the rules listed below when loading and unloading litter casualties. They
apply to ground ambulances and to nonmedical vehicles used to evacuate casualties.
a. Use a litter team to load litter casualties. The litter team should follow any
special instructions given by ambulance personnel.
b. Load a litter casualty with his head toward the front of the vehicle unless:
The casualty is loaded crosswise.
(2) The assistant driver wants the casualty's feet in the direction of travel.
For example, a casualty with an injury to one side of his body may need to be loaded
feet first so the injured side is readily accessible to the assistant driver.
c. Load litter casualties from top to bottom. If the top litter slips or something
falls from the litter while it is being loaded, there is no casualty underneath to be injured.
d. Load litter casualties from right to left.
e. Load casualties receiving IV fluids, having bulky splints, or with chest or
abdominal wounds in the lower berths regardless of their triage category.