a. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is involved with the resorption or
salvaging of water within the kidneys. Antidiuretic hormone is produced under thirst
b. Oxytocin. Oxytocin has several specific effects, particularly upon smooth
muscle. It is involved with contractions of smooth muscle in the uterus and with milk
ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND
In the embryo, the anterior pituitary gland develops from the roof of the pharynx.
Eventually, it lies in front of and attached to the posterior pituitary gland. Certain cells of
the hypothalamus produce specific secretions called releasing factors. A special
venous portal system carries these releasing factors to the anterior pituitary gland.
There, they stimulate the cells of the anterior pituitary gland to secrete their specific
a. Somatotropin (Somatotrophic Hormone; Growth Hormone).
Somatotropin stimulates the growth of the body in general. When this hormone is
deficient, dwarfism results. When it is present in excess amounts, giantism results.
b. Thyrotropin. Thyrotropin stimulates the thyroid gland to produce its
c. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH). Adrenocorticotropic hormone
stimulates the adrenal (suprarenal) cortex to produce its hormones.
d. Luteinizing Hormone (LH). Luteinizing hormone stimulates ovulation and
luteinization of ovarian follicles in females and promotes testosterone production in
e. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH). Follicle-stimulating hormone
stimulates ovarian follicle growth in females and stimulates spermatogenesis in males.
f. Prolactin. Prolactin stimulates milk production and maternal behavior in
Section III. THE PINEAL GLAND
The pineal gland is located just above the brainstem. It is between the cerebral