Insulin and glucagon are two important hormones of the islets. These hormones
are concerned with the glucose levels in the body.
Section VI. THE ADRENAL (SUPRARENAL)GLANDS
11-13. LOCATION AND STRUCTURE
As seen in a previous lesson, the kidneys are attached to the upper posterior
abdominal wall by a combination of fat and fascia. The adrenal (suprarenal) gland is
embedded in the fat immediately above each kidney. Each is triangular or crescent
shaped. Each adrenal gland has a central medulla and an outer cortex.
11-14. HORMONES OF THE ADRENAL MEDULLA
The central portion of the adrenal gland produces two hormones: epinephrine
(Adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenalin). These hormones mobilize the
energy-producing organs of the body and immobilize the others. This is important
during the stress reaction ("fight or flight").
11-15. HORMONES OF THE ADRENAL CORTEX
The outer portion (the cortex) of the adrenal gland produces a variety of
hormones which can be grouped into three categories:
a. Mineralocorticoids (for example, aldosterone), which are concerned with the
electrolyte and water balance of the body.
b. Glucocorticoids (for example, cortisol), which are concerned with many
metabolic functions. They are especially known for their anti-inflammatory effects.
c. Sex Hormones (adrenal androgens and estrogens).
Section VII. THE GONADS AS ENDOCRINE GLANDS
We have already seen that the primary sex organs (gonads) produce sex
hormones in addition to sex cells (gametes). These hormones help to determine an
individual's actual sex (male or female) and promote the sexual development of the