Hawthorne effect: a temporary positive effect resulting from any changes in
environment or conditions (pare 1-1f).
implied consent: approval inferred from the patient's conduct; or voluntary
submission with apparent knowledge of the nature of the procedure; or presumed
consent in a life-threatening emergency (para 1-6).
incompetent (for consent purposes): lacking the mental capacity to make rational
decisions or to conduct one's personal affairs; a legal determination (para 1-24).
informed consent: the free (uncoerced) authorization of a procedure that is given
by a competent individual, having sufficient information (para 1-2b).
injury: a physical, financial, or emotional act, or some other invasion of the
plaintiff's rights and privileges (para 4-8a).
instrumental value: a decision to choose one mode of conduct, e.g., honesty,
intentional tort: a wrongful act that arises from the intent (not necessarily hostile)
to bring about a result that will invade the interests of another in a legally
unsanctioned way (para 4-3a).
invasion of privacy: interference with the right
of a person "to
be let alone" (para
irreversible terminal illness: a progressive disease or illness known to terminate
in death, and for which additional therapy offers no reasonable expectation of
remission (para 2-8b).
liable: legally responsible (para 4-4b).
life-sustaining treatment: any medical procedure or intervention which serves only
to artificially prolong the dying of a patient, diagnosed and certified by at least two
physicians as afflicted with a terminal condition or as being in a persistent or chronic
vegetative state (para 2-9b).