-- ATTENTION --
Artificial respiration may be necessary.
f. Bacterial Infections. The following food-borne diseases, while commonly
referred to as food poisoning, are not true intoxications, but bacterial infections caused
by the actual colonization of the infectious organism within the human body:
(1) Salmonellosis (Salmonella food poisoning)
Identification. All of the Salmonella species of bacteria that affect
man are capable of inducing acute gastroenteritis, fever, or septicemia (invasion of the
bloodstream). Discussion in these paragraphs is limited to acute gastroenteritis-
salmonella food poisoning, which is actually an infection.
Signs/symptoms. This commonly occurring disease is characterized
by diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Often nausea, vomiting, and fever are also present.
The incubation period may range from 6 to 48 hours, with 12 hours being the usual.
Prognosis. The acute gastroenteritis may develop into enteric fever
or septicemia. Recovery of Salmonella from suspected food or from feces of cases
during the acute stage of infection aids diagnosis.
Reservoir. Man, as both case and carrier, is a reservoir, as are most
domestic animals, especially fowl, and many wild animals.
Source of infection. Sources of infection, in addition to feces of
infected humans and animals, include: eggs, dried egg powder, and undercooked flesh
of infected animals. Routine veterinary-meat-inspection-techniques usually can detect
the disease in large meat animals, but not in fowl. Eggs and other foods may be
contaminated by food handlers, rats, and insects.
Treatment. There is no specific therapy.
(2) Clostridium perfringens "food poisoning."
Identification. Clostridium perfringens (C. welchii) is an organism that
is found widely distributed in nature and which is part of the normal flora of the human
bowel. It is considered pathogenic (causing disease) only when several of the organism
are ingested and permitted to grow in the upper digestive tract.
Incubation period. The incubation period is approximately 8 to 24