a. Water Treatment. Only water sources approved by the surgeon may be
used. Water from these sources should be so purified that no pathogens exist in it and
sufficient chlorine residual persists in the water distributed to troops.
b. Foodstuffs. Take care in handling food to keep it from becoming
contaminated with pathogenic organisms.
Most foods furnish sufficient nutrient matter for these organisms to
multiply and in some instances to produce large amounts of toxin.
The food service supervisor should inspect all foodstuffs arriving at the
kitchen and refuse or hold for medical service examination any that appear
(1) Bacterial growth. Bacteria or their toxins are responsible for most
outbreaks of food poisoning and for certain other intestinal diseases.
Bacterial growth is slowed, although in many instances not stopped
completely, at a temperature of 50 F.
Bacterial growth increases quite rapidly as the temperature increases
until a temperature is reached at which bacteria are finally destroyed (140-165 F).
The temperature range suitable for growth or the elaboration of
enterotoxin may be referred to as the incubation range.
Obviously, foods, which require refrigeration for protection
against bacterial growth, should be in the refrigerator at all times except when required
elsewhere for efficient preparation and serving.
The operating temperature of the refrigerator should not
exceed 45 F.
Since enterotoxin-producing staphylococci may need only 3 hours of
incubation at room temperature (70 F) to produce sufficient toxin to cause severe
symptoms of food poisoning when ingested, 3 hours should be considered the
maximum safe limit to allow perishable foods, especially those rich in protein, to remain
-- This time is cumulative.
-- For instance, 2 hours one time at room temperature and 1 hour
later, even with intermittent refrigeration, equals the specified 3 hours.