Blood cell rupture corresponds to the beginning of the patient's
Also developed at this stage are forms of the parasite that renew the
ring stage by infecting additional red blood cells of the host.
-- This is referred to as the asexual cycle, since reproduction of
blood forms is continued without fertilization.
(3) Maintaining infection in man and mosquito. There are two cycles, one
within the other. The larger cycle maintains the infection in the mosquito population; the
other maintains the infection within the human host.
b. Incubation Period. Malaria is not transmissible in nature from man to man;
however, it may be transmitted by transfusion of infected blood or by using
contaminated hypodermic needles. The incubation period varies with the species of the
infecting agent. With P. facliparum it will average 12 days; with P. vivax and P. ovale 14
days; and with P. malariae 30 days; however, it may be as long as 8 to 10 months with
some strains of P. vivax. Mixed infections also occur.
(1) Person-to-person transmission of malaria. Many species of mosquitoes
of the genus Anopheles are capable of transmitting malaria from person to person.
Most of the endemic areas lie between 35 north and 35 south latitude.
(2) Malaria complication: blackwater fever. Malaria, particular falciparum
malaria, may be complicated by an acute and very serious hemolytic state known as
Symptoms include fever, massive hemolysis, and often, acute kidney
failure and uremia.
Mortality is from 20 to 30 percent.