a. Signs and Symptoms. Painful cramps of the muscles may occur following
exposure to heat.
The muscles of the extremities and of the abdominal wall are usually
involved and the cramps may be of great severity.
Body temperature is normal.
The casualty may be perspiring heavily and be very thirsty.
(1) Protect casualty from sun. Move the casualty to a cool, shaded area to
rest. If shade is not available, improvise using ponchos, blankets, or other available
materials to protect the casualty from direct sunlight. Have the casualty sit or lie in a
(2) Loosen clothing. Loosen the casualty's tight-fitting clothing if you are not
in a chemical environment.
(3) Give water and salt solution. Give the casualty a water and salt solution
to help restore his body's natural (fluid and salt) balance.
Dissolve 1/4 teaspoon of loose salt (same as one packet of salt from
rations) in a canteen (one quart) filled with cool water.
Have the casualty drink the entire canteen within a one-hour period.
-- If no salt is available, still have the casualty drink at least one
quart of cool water.
-- If the casualty is still thirsty after drinking the salt solution, allow
him to drink cool, unsalted water.
If the casualty feels nauseous (feels as though he is going to vomit),
encourage him to drink cool water (no salt added).
Vomiting caused by drinking salty water will only result in the loss of more
water and salt from his body.
When the feeling of nausea has passed, give him the salt and water solution
to drink or salty food to eat.
(4) Evacuate, if needed. If the casualty continues to have severe cramps,
evacuate him to a medical treatment facility.