PROTECTION OF WATER SUPPLIES
Section I. WATER SOURCE PROTECTION
Characteristics of water sources and general considerations in the selection of a
water source were briefly discussed in paragraph 1-8. In this section, the emphasis wiII
be placed on ensuring the sanitary quality of the source selected. Since most miIitary
water supply sources are surface waters, followed in frequency by wells or springs, the
discussion wiII center around these sources. Although the first consideration in
selecting a water source is obtaining a source with sufficient quantity, every effort must
be made to find one that provides the best possible quality. Once a source is selected,
it must be developed and maintained so as to preserve or improve the sanitary quality.
This is very true in that the enemy may try to induce chemical, biological, and/or
SURFACE WATER SUPPLIES
a. Sources of Contamination. Many surface waters are contaminated with
domestic wastewater, industrial wastes, surface runoff, and drainage from cultivated
land and farm yards. Contamination of these kinds may be minimized by the following
(1) Limiting access to the immediate surrounding area by constructing
fences and walls.
Planting grass on all possible surfaces draining into the water.
(3) Constructing diversion ditches to prevent wastes from discharging into
the water source.
b. Selection of Intake Points. An intake point should be selected at which the
water is as clear and deep as possible. The strainer on the suction hose should be at
least 4 inches below the water level. This precaution reduces the possibiIity of clogging
the strainer with floating debris or drawing air into the suction Iine. In deep water,
improvised floats may be devised to support the strainer (an aluminum float is a
standard component of the WPU). An anchor should be provided to prevent excessive
movement of the float, and sufficient slack should be provided in the intake hose to
permit normal movement. Figure 6-1 illustrates two improvised floats. Where the water
is too shallow to use a float, several methods may be used to prevent foreign matter