c. Sanitary clean-up of breeding sites or shelters.
d. Early or late planting of crops to avoid peak populations of arthropod pests.
e. Removal of standing water.
1-8. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
a. General. The reduction of pest populations by using living organisms is
encouraged by man (including reproductive and genetic control techniques). Biological
control is based, in part, upon the introduction, production, and release of parasites,
predators, and diseases that attack and reduce or control populations of harmful
arthropods. Included in this method are:
The protection of insectivorous animals and wild birds.
(2) The propagation and spread of disease-producing protozoa, bacteria,
fungi, and viruses.
The production and release of diseased arthropods.
Introduction of parasites such as insects, nematodes, and mites.
The release of sterile male insects of the target species.
b. Importance of Biological Control. Although biological control of arthropods
has had some success in the past, this method of control is still in need of much
development and, at present, is of little importance for military purposes. This
statement should not suggest, however, that biological control is without merit. There
have been some very successful control programs using biological agents against
specific pests. For the most part, biological pressures against pests are continually
operating in nature, even though we may be unaware of them. For that reason, great
care and responsible thought must be exercised whenever employing chemical means
against pests. We must not accidentally or needlessly destroy natural pressures that
tend to hold pest populations in check. An excellent example of an effective use of
biological agents is biological insecticides such as the bacterium Bacillus turingiensis
var. israeliensis (Bti) for mosquito control.
1-9. REGULATORY CONTROL
The legal aspect of control of arthropod pests is mostly based upon quarantine,
inspection, and sanitation laws. The military is highly concerned with effective
enforcement of quarantine procedures.
a. Importance. Ideally, animals and plants exist together in natural balance.
Parasites, predators, and diseases all serve to keep biological species from becoming