overabundant. One of the several factors that can upset this "balance of nature" is the
introduction of an alien species into an existing biological community. Taken from a
competitive environment, the species is usually introduced without its natural enemies.
When it is then placed in a suitable environment, there is very little to check a
population buildup and the spread of the species. Great damage can result. The
Japanese beetle, European corn borer, Hassian fly, gypsy moth, Mediterranean fruit fly,
oriental fruit fly, old house borer, Khapra beetle, golden nematode, and Mediterranean
white garden snail are a few examples of economic pests that have been accidentally
introduced into the United States. Introduced rodents, fleas, mosquitoes, ticks, and
domestic animals have been responsible for outbreaks of bubonic plague, yellow fever,
filariasis, canine piroplasmosis, and foot and mouth disease.
b. Quarantine. The military, in conjunction with other Federal agencies, is
active in preventing the introduction of any potential pest into the United States.
Government agencies responsible for intercepting such pests are the Animal and Plant
Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Public
Health Service (PHS) of the Department of Health and Human Services, and the
Bureau of Customs of the U.S. Treasury Department. In the Army, "Quarantine
Regulations for Vessels and Aircraft of the Armed Forces" are set forth in AR 40-12.
These regulations authorize inspectors from the USDA, the Public Health Service, and
the Bureau of Customs to board vessels and aircraft of the Armed Forces for thorough
examination. The Army maintains a liaison with these Federal agencies and complies
with the quarantine measures established by the USDA/PHS.
c. The Military Retrograde Cargo Program. The presence of United States
military bases and the potential deployment of troops throughout the free world impose
special problems and responsibilities upon those concerned with the movement of men
and material from country to country. With nations only a few hours away from each
other, the risk of accidentally introducing disease vectors, veterinary pests, and
agricultural pests into a noninfested area is greater than ever. Disease vectors,
veterinary pests, and agricultural pests may be introduced into this country in or on
humans, cargo, cargo containers, packing materials, or earth adhering to bags, boxes,
vehicles, or military equipment. Disease vectors and other pests may hitch rides into
this country on vehicles, ships, or aircraft. Therefore, an intensive surveillance program
to prevent the introduction and establishment in the United States of disease and pest
organism of foreign origin has been established. The first step on preventing accidental
introduction of foreign pests is the cleaning/inspection of equipment being redeployed
from a foreign nation. Additionally, commanders of all installations receiving cargo
originating outside the United States must establish procedures to detect the presence
of quarantine materials and organisms in such cargo and must ensure that pesticide
chemicals applied prior to shipment are removed properly.
d. Responsibilities. The following individuals are responsible for carrying out
the provisions of the Military Retrograde Cargo Program.