(2) Central nervous system stimulants cause excessive nerve activity by
facilitating transmission of nerve impulses and flood the brain with so much information;
the casualty cannot concentrate and does not act in a decisive manner.
a. Types of Vomiting Agents. Vomiting agents include diphenylchlorarsine
(DA), diphenylaminearsine chloride (DM, also called Adamsite), and diphenylcyanarsine
b. Methods of Dissemination. Vomiting agents are dispersed as aerosols
c. Characteristics of Vomiting Agents. Diphenylaminearsine chloride, DA,
and DC are crystalline solids that are usually dispersed by heat as fine particulate
smoke. Diphenylaminearsine chloride smoke is yellow when concentrated. DA and DC
smokes are white when concentrated. When diluted with air, all three smokes are
d. Absorption of Vomiting Agents. Vomiting agents are absorbed through the
respiratory track and the eyes.
e. Physiological Effects. Vomiting agents produce strong irritation of the upper
respiratory system, irritation of the eyes, nausea, and vomiting.
NERVE AGENT ANTIDOTES
Atropine and pralidoxime chloride 2-PAM Cl are the nerve agent antidotes used
by soldiers in the field. These antidotes neutralize nerve agents that have already been
absorbed into the body. Each soldier is issued three sets of nerve agent antidote
automatic injectors (autoinjectors). Each Mark I nerve agent antidote kit (NAAK)
consists of a plastic clip containing two autoinjectors: one autoinjector containing two
mg of atropine and one autoinjector containing 600 mg of 2-PAM chloride. These kits
are normally carried in the inside pocket of the protective mask carrier. When the
temperature is below freezing, however, the autoinjectors must be carried in a location
that will protect them from the cold. Always check your local standing operating
procedures (SOP) to determine how the autoinjectors are to be carried in freezing
weather. Procedures for administering these antidotes are discussed in Lessons 2
CONVULSANT ANTIDOTE FOR NERVE AGENT
The convulsant antidote for nerve agent (CANA) is similar to existing auto injectors
but modified to hold a 2-milliliter volume of diazepam. The exterior of the CANA auto
injector is distinguishable from the NAAK kit by two flanges on the length of the barrel.
Convulsant antidote for nerve agent ( is a disposable device to be given by intramuscular