(1) Soldiers should prevent metal from coming into contact with bare skin in
cold weather. The skin could freeze and stick to the metal. The skin may tear when
attempting to remove the hand from the metal.
(2) Soldiers should prevent gasoline, kerosene, and alcohol from splashing
on their skin and avoid using these substances to clean their hands. These substances
evaporate rapidly and promote the loss of body heat.
m. Protect Face. Soldiers should wear masks and headgear to protect their
faces. Sunglasses should be worn if the ground is covered with snow or ice in order to
protect against snow blindness even if the weather is cloudy, foggy, or hazy.
n. Avoid Alcohol and Tobacco. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and use
of tobacco products promote heat loss and should be avoided. Alcohol also depresses
body systems and can reduce the soldier's ability to recognize danger and make
o. Identify Soldiers Who Are at Higher-Than-Normal Risk. Soldiers who
have had previous episodes of cold injury are prone to repeat cold injuries. Also,
soldiers with vascular impairment are prone to cold injury. Soldier at higher-than-normal
risk need to pay special attention to preventive measures and may require additional
p. Consult Wind Chill Chart. The wind chill chart (figure 5-1) allows the
temperature and the wind velocity to be combined into a single index called the "wind
chill factor." The chart shows the cooling power of the wind on exposed (unprotected)
flesh by showing the temperature it would take to produce the same cooling effect on
exposed flesh if no wind were present. This information can also be used to determine
the danger that protected soldiers face when outdoors. (Remember, wet clothing
looses much of its protective power.)
(1) To use the chart, find the column with the approximate air temperature
column and the row with the approximate wind speed. The wind chill factor is located
where the temperature column and wind speed row intersect. For example, an actual
temperature of 23F with a wind of 20 miles per hour produces the same cooling effect
of a temperature of -6F (six degrees below zero) with no wind.
(2) Wind is any air circulation. If you are in an open vehicle driving 40 miles
per hour on a calm day and the air temperature is 14F, the wind chill factor will be -31F
(14F at 40 mph).
(3) Once you have determined the wind chill, determine whether it falls into
the little danger zone, considerable danger zone, or very great danger zone for
personnel that are properly clothed.