d. Evacuate Casualty, If Needed. Evacuate the casualty to a medical
treatment facility if anaphylactic shock develops, if the sting site is around the mouth or
eyes, or if the caterpillar was ingested.
2-21. IDENTIFY BITES AND STINGS FROM UNIDENTIFIED ARTHROPODS
Many insects and other arthropods are medically important because their bite or
sting can result in pain or irritation and be a source of concern to the casualty. Many
times the casualty may not know what bit or stung him, but you must still treat the
casualty and look for signs and symptoms that may indicate a life-threatening condition.
a. Normal Signs and Symptoms. Most arthropod bites and stings are
characterized by swelling and pain at the site of the bite or sting.
b. Severe Signs and Symptoms. If the casualty has a severe reaction to the
bite or sting, breathing difficulties and anaphylactic shock may develop.
2-22. TREAT A BITE OR STING FROM AN UNIDENTIFIED ARTHROPOD
a. Cleanse Wound. Cleanse the sting or bite area with an antiseptic solution
from your aid bag. If an antiseptic solution is not available, cleanse the area with soap
b. Apply Cold Treatment. Apply ice, an ice bag, or chemical cold packs to the
sting or bite area to relieve pain, help control swelling, and reduce the spread of the
c. Monitor Casualty's Vital Signs. Monitor the casualty's vital signs for
indications of anaphylactic shock or other severe reaction to the bite or sting. Evacuate
the casualty to a medical treatment facility if respiration problems or anaphylactic shock
develop. Perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, if