2-16. TREAT A TICK BITE
a. Remove Tick. Using tweezers, grasp the tick as close to the casualty's skin
as possible and pull the tick straight out using steady pressure. Do not grasp the tick's
abdomen. If you rupture the tick upon removal, cleanse the area with soapy water or
(1) If tweezers are not available, use an absorbent material (gauze pads,
paper towels, and so forth) to grasp the tick as close to the skin as possible. The absorbent
material will help to protect you and the casualty from the contents of the tick's
abdomen, which may contain disease-causing microorganisms.
After removing the tick, inspect the tick and the bite site.
b. Cleanse Wound. Cleanse the wound (bite site) thoroughly using an
antiseptic solution from your aid bag. If an antiseptic solution is not available, cleanse
the area thoroughly with soap and water. If the tick broke apart, scrub the area
aggressively with antiseptic.
c. Cleanse Self. If you touched the tick, if you used absorbent material to
remove the tick, or if the tick broke apart (even if you used tweezers), aggressively
clean your hands with antiseptic solution or with soap and water.
d. Monitor Casualty. Evacuate the casualty to a medical treatment facility if
breathing difficulties develop. Continue to monitor the casualty for the next several days
for signs and symptoms of tick-transmitted diseases, particularly breathing difficulties
and paralysis. Watch the casualty for any rashes, fevers, malaise (tiredness), lethargy,
or difficulty in thinking, all of which can indicate the onset of certain tick-borne diseases.
2-17. IDENTIFY MITE (CHIGGER) BITES
Mites are often found in tall grass and in scrub vegetation. The larva of the mite
is commonly called a chigger. These small animals attach themselves to animals in
order to obtain blood. Mites can transmit diseases such as scrub typhus
(tsutsugamushi disease) and river fever. Soldiers should take protective measures
against mites, including wearing shirts with the sleeves rolled down, tucking trouser legs
in boots, and spraying socks, boot tops, boot tongues, trouser cuffs, waist bands, and
clothing openings with insect repellent containing DEET (diethyltoluamide).
a. Physical Characteristics of Mites. Mites are very small, often requiring a
microscope for identification. They usually have transparent or semitransparent bodies.
Figure 2-8 shows a chigger, which is one stage in the life cycle of a mite.
b. Signs and Symptoms of a Mite (Chigger) Bite. The primary signs and
symptoms of chigger bites are itching and redness at the site of the bite.