b. Substance abuse can affect combat readiness, job performance, and the
health of military personnel and their families. It can also cost millions of dollars in lost
time and productivity. More importantly, it can destroy the individual abuser.
c. As a medical specialist, you should be aware of your fellow soldier's
suspected substance abuse. This lesson will include terminology commonly associated
with substance abuse, signs and symptoms of substance abuse, categories of
commonly abused substances, and procedures for reporting and referring suspected
TERMS COMMONLY USED IN SUBSTANCE USE
a. Drug Use. Drug use is the infrequent or recurrent use of any substance that
has effect on the body, often used for social or recreational purposes.
Drugs may be taken into the body by any route (for example, oral, inhalation,
rectal, or injections).
b. Drug Abuse. Drug abuse is the frequent or recurrent use of any substance
Achieve a state of intoxication (condition of "being drunk" or a "drunk-
Escape from reality or problems.
c. Tolerance. Tolerance is the physical condition in which, after repeated
exposure to a given drug, larger doses of the drug are required to achieve the desired
d. Withdrawal. Withdrawal is a consistent pattern of physical responses that
appears when regular drug use is discontinued. In general, drug withdrawal reactions
tend to produce the opposite effect of the ingested drug (for example, alcohol [a
depressant] causes hyperactivity in a withdrawing abuser).
e. Drug Dependence/Addiction. Drug dependence or addiction is the use of a
drug to the extent that usage becomes more frequent, tolerance increases, and
stopping would result in withdrawal. Disruption of normal social patterns occurs.
(1) Psychological dependence. In psychological dependence, a drug
becomes necessary in order for a person to achieve or to retain a sense of well-being.
Withdrawal of the drug results in compulsive drug seeking behavior.