Signs and symptoms of circulatory overload.
(a) Rise in blood pressure.
(b) Dilation of veins with neck veins sometimes visibly engorged.
Rapid pulse, rapid breathing, shortness of breath, and rales.
Rales is an abnormal crackling or rattling sound heard upon listening to sound
within the chest.
(d) Wide variance between fluid input and urine output.
Intervention measures for circulatory overload.
(a) Slow the infusion to keep open (TKO) rate.
(b) Raise the head of the patient's bed to assist with respiratory effort.
Immediately notify your supervisor.
Preventive measures against circulatory overload.
(a) Monitor the urine output. An Intake and Output (I&O) Worksheet
(DD Form 3630) is required for all IV patients. A record of liquid input and output
(including IV therapy) is maintained on this worksheet.
(b) Check the flow rate at frequent intervals to ensure the desired rate
is being maintained.
d. Air Embolism. Air embolism is an obstruction of a blood vessel by air carried
via the bloodstream.
Causes of air embolism.
(a) Allowing the solution to run dry.
(b) Air bubbles in the IV tubing.