(4) Time. If accomplishment of the training objective within a specified time
limit is important, it should be stated. "Circulation must be restricted for no longer than
two minutes" and "the bottle must be changed every 24 to 48 hours" are examples of
(5) Rate. The rate is a combination of time and quantity. If a certain output
must be accomplished within a specific period, this is rate. "One unit within four hours"
and "no more than six grains in a 24 hour period" are considered rate standards.
(6) Qualitative standards. The use of qualitative standard is not generally
advised in the medical field because these are open to subjective interpretation by the
evaluator. "Without further injury" and "during a reasonable time period" are qualitative
standards. They raise questions about what constitutes "further injury" and how much
time is "reasonable." Wherever possible, specify the quantitative standards ((1) through
(5) above). Figure 4-2 shows some examples of standards.
4-10. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING OBJECTIVES
If a task is simple and straightforward, training can be prepared from a single
task objective. Frequently this is not possible because the task is very complicated or it
rests heavily on previously learned skills. If this happens, one or a series of objectives
should be prepared which will lead up to the required final objective. The intermediate
training objectives (ITOs) should be prepared in the reverse order in which they will be
taught. Each intermediate objective consists of the same parts as the final objective,
a. The task statement that describes the action to be performed.
b. The conditions under which the action will be performed.
c. The training standards that describe how well the task should be performed
under the listed conditions.
4-11. AN EXAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE TRAINING OBJECTIVES
a. Developing Intermediate Training Objectives. Using an example of a training
objective, you can develop the ITO series in this manner. The training objective is to
"Calculate the dosage of a medication to be administered to a patient within the period and
in the strength ordered by the physician in his doctor's order." The general order of difficulty,
from complex to simple could be:
(1) The student will calculate the amount prescribed by the physician from
The student will demonstrate his ability to read and interpret the doctor's