c. Tubing. The tubing and clamp are part of the administration set. There is
enough tubing to allow an ambulatory patient to move around.
d. Filters. Some filters are already in the administration set and some must be
attached separately. The type of filter used will depend on the solution being infused.
e. Spikes. Each type of system has a spike, which must be inserted into the
fluid container. After this is done, the line must be cleared of all air. This is done by
gradually lowering the tubing from the fluid container until the whole line is filled with
fluid. All air must be forced from the tubing. Then the tubing is clamped off. Sterility
must be maintained throughout the assembly process.
f. Needle. The size and type of needle will depend on the fluid infused and the
local SOP. Sizes used are 14, 16, and 18 gauge (a lower number indicates a larger
bore). A commonly used needle is the butterfly type with plastic wings. Some needles
allow the catheter to be inserted with the needle while some have over-the-needle
catheters. Some examples are shown in figure 3-4.
Figure 3-4. Winged-tip needle. "Butterfly" (with tubing and adaptor).
g. Adhesive Tape. The needle/catheter must be taped in place to prevent
dislodging or vein irritation. Tape application will depend on the type of needle/catheter
h. Constricting Band. Any firm strip may be used. Examples are rubber
tubing, cravats, or a blood pressure cuff. The band must remain in place no longer than