injury), and shout, "Are you O.K.?" (NOTE: Do not shake the casualty if you suspect
spinal injury--just shout. Even if you do not suspect spinal damage, do not shake the
person in a violent manner. Violent shaking could aggravate other injuries the casualty
may have suffered.) If the casualty responds (conscious), give whatever aid is needed.
If he does not respond (unconscious), conscious), continue with your rescue efforts. It
will take from four to ten seconds to establish unconsciousness. Whether the casualty
is conscious or unconscious, call for additional help, if such help is available.
b. Positioning the Casualty. You must position a casualty flat on his back
before beginning CPR. If the casualty is lying in a supine position (on his back), place
his arms at his side and proceed to establish an open airway (para 1-9c). If the casualty
is in a prone position (on his chest), turn him onto his back using the procedures given
below and shown in figure 2-1. These procedures allow the casualty's body to be
turned as a unit and minimize the likelihood that injuries will be aggravated. It is
especially important to use these procedures if you suspect that the casualty may have
an injury to his spine. Follow this procedure:
Straighten the casualty's legs (figure 1-1 A).
(2) Take the casualty's arm that is nearest to you and move it so that it
is straight and above his head (figure 1-1 A). Then, move his other arm so that it is
straight and above his head also.
(3) Kneel beside the casualty. Your knees should be near his chest
area, but there should be enough space between you and the casualty for you to roll
him onto his back (figure 1-1 A).
(4) Support the casualty's head and neck by placing your hand that is
nearest his head on the back of his head and neck (figure 1-1 A).
(5) With your other hand, grasp the casualty under his far arm (figure
1-1 B ).
(6) Roll the casualty towards you (figure 1-1 B). Use a steady and
even pull, turning the casualty's body as a unit so that his head and neck stay in line
with his back.
(7) Return the casualty's arms to his side (figure 1-1C).
If his legs are crossed, straighten them so that they are not crossed.
Be sure that the casualty is on a hard surface. A firm surface is necessary for
chest compressions to be effective. Appropriate surfaces include the ground,
a backboard, and a bed board.