(2) Look at the casualty's at the casualty's chest. If the casualty is
breathing, you should be able to see the chest rise and fall.
Listen for the sound of breathing (air being inhaled and exhaled).
(4) Feel for the flow of air on the side of your face, the air flow being caused
by the casualty exhaling.
(1) If your check shows that the casualty is breathing, take measures to
maintain his airway.
(2) If your check shows that the casualty is not breathing, reposition his
head and neck (para 1-7b) and check for breathing a second time. If he is still not
breathing, you must perform CPR immediately.
f. Rescue Breathing. Forcing an unconscious casualty to inhale and exhale is
the part of CPR termed "rescue breathing" or "ventilating the casualty." (Ventilation
simply means that you are supplying the casualty's lungs with fresh air.) There are
three methods of rescue breathing. Mouth-to-mouth is the method normally used.
Mouth-to-nose, an alternate method, is used when the casualty's mouth cannot be
opened or when you are unable to achieve a tight seal around the casualty's mouth.
Procedures for performing mouth-to-nose rescue breathing are given in paragraph f (2)
If the casualty has had his larynx removed surgically, there will be an opening
in the neck for breathing purposes. This opening, called a stoma, can be used
to perform mouth-to-stoma rescue breathing.
(1) Mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing. Perform mouth-to-mouth ventilations
in the following manner:
(a) Gently pinch the casualty's nose closed. The casualty's nostrils
must be closed so that air will not escape when you blow air into his mouth. Using the
thumb and index finger of your hand on the casualty's forehead, pinch his nostrils
closed gently (figure 1-4). Keep the heel of your hand on the casualty's forehead and
maintain enough pressure to maintain the head-tilt. Your other hand should stay on the
casualty's chin or neck so the airway remains open.
(b) Give two full breaths within 3 seconds.
This is a change. Previously, the directions were to give "four quick breaths."
It is believed those breaths put too much air in the lungs and caused
complications such as gastric distention.