Irritation by nuts, chocolate, and citrus fruits.
(d) Inflammatory bowel disease, infectious mononucleosis, prolonged
(3) Signs and symptoms. The first stage begins as a shallow erosion with a
slightly raised, yellowish border. The erosion is bordered by a narrow, crimson zone. In
five to seven days, the ulcer is covered with a yellowish opaque material made up of
coagulated tissue fluids, oral bacteria, and white blood cells. For three to four days, the
ulcer is extremely painful; then the ulcer heals spontaneously, and the pain is gone. If
several, very painful ulcers occur at the same time, the patient may experience a vague
feeling of ill health, fever, and lymph node disease.
(4) Treatment. A topical anesthetic such as two percent lidocaine can be
used as an oral rinse. Hydrocortisone, an antibiotic ointment, can be applied. Usually,
antibiotics that affect the entire system are not administered.
b. Cancer of the Mouth.
(1) Etiology. Cancer of the mouth has the advantage of being visible to the
patient, his doctor, or his dentist early in the disease. Among the causes may be warm
pipe stems and prolonged exposure to wind and sun. Cancerous lesions may also
develop on the lips and the tongue.
(2) Signs and symptoms. An early sign of cancer may be pearly, crinkled
areas on mucous membranes. An ulcer on the lips or gums which fails to heal is
another sign. Swelling and loss of feeling in that part of the body is another indication of
cancer of the mouth.
(3) Treatment. Possible treatments include surgical removal of the cancer,
surgical removal and radiation, or radiation by itself. Mouth lesions or lymph nodes can
be surgically removed. If the cancer is inoperable, radiotherapy can be used to make
the cancer smaller. Systemic chemotherapy can be used to slow the tumor growth.
DISEASES AND DISORDERS OF THE ESOPHAGUS
a. Pyrosis (Heartburn).
(1) Definition. Pyrosis, commonly called heartburn, is an eating disorder in
which there is a burning sensation in the esophagus.