MEDICAL TERMS RELATED TO THE EYES
a. Astigmatism--refractive error which prevents the light rays from coming to a
single focus on the retina because of different degrees of refraction in the various
meridians of the cornea.
b. Cataract--a lens opacity; a loss of transparency of the lens of the eye,
resulting in partial or total blindness. Surgery results in improvement of vision in 95
percent of those affected.
c. Chalazion--granulomatous inflammation of the meibomian gland; lump or
swelling on eyelid.
d. Color blindness--diminished ability to perceive differences in color.
e. Concave lens--lens that diverges rays of light (myopic)--also known as
reducing, negative minus lens(-).
f. Convergence--the process of directing the visual axis of the eyes to a near
g. Convex lens--lens that converges rays of light bringing them to focus; also
known as magnifying, hyperopic, plus lens (+).
h. Diplopia--seeing one object as two.
Ectropion--turning out of the eyelid.
j. Entropion--turning inward of the eyelid.
k. Glaucoma--a group of eye diseases characterized by abnormally high
intraocular pressure (pressure in the eyeball). This pressure can damage the optic
nerve and, if untreated, lead to a gradual loss of vision -- and eventually blindness.
l. Hyperopia (farsightedness)--a refractive error in which the focal point of light
rays from a distant object is behind the retina.
m. Miotic--a drug causing pupillary constriction.
n. Mydriatic--a drug causing pupillary dilatation without affecting
o. Myopia--a refractive error which the focal point for light rays from a distant
object is anterior to the retina.