b. The Bony Skull: Nontrauma.
(1) Hydrocephalus--excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the
ventricular spaces of the brain or in the subarachnoid spaces. This condition occurs
primarily in newborns causing an enlarged head.
(2) Osteitis deformans (Paget's disease of bone)--a bone disease with areas
of bone destruction followed by a period of excessive, abnormal bone formation. The
new bone growth is fragile and weak, and the excessive growth results in internal and
c. The Hair.
Brittleness and thinning as seen in pituitary problems and thyroid
(2) Hair loss. Syphilitic alopecia (patchy baldness, usually temporary)
occurs in the second stage of syphilis. The head of such a patient can be described as
having a "moth eaten" appearance.
d. The Lips.
Blister--fever blisters, herpes labialis (type I).
(3) Chancre--the first lesion of syphilis. This lesion occurs at the site of the
entrance of the syphilitic infection as a hard, reddish ulcer with an eroded center
covered by a yellowish secretion.
(4) Perleche--monilia (a genus of molds or fungi) infection marked by an
inflammation at the angles of the mouth. Perleche occurs in those who have a habit of
licking the corners of the mouth or in the undernourished.
e. The Tongue.
Strawberry tongue characteristic of scarlet fever.
(2) Excessive smoking--mild glossitis (inflammation of the tongue) with
brown/gray coating (smoker's breath).
(3) Carcinoma--a malignant, cellular tumor appearing as a depressed lesion
which bleeds easily and won't go away.
(4) Aphthous ulcers--small, white patches commonly called "canker sores."
Viral in origin, most resolve spontaneously in 7-10 days.