Section III. MICROBIOLOGY OF POULTRY AND SHELL EGGS
MICROBIOLOGY OF POULTRY
a. Food Poisoning Potential. The microbiology of poultry products is similar to
that of red meats. The basic principles are the same. Salmonella food poisoning in
humans is commonly traced to eating contaminated poultry products. This is a major
type of food poisoning.
b. High Bacterial Counts. Chicken potpies have been studied extensively by
public health officials. The bacterial count in this product is often astoundingly high.
The food poisoning potential of this product cannot be dismissed readily. About the
same situation exists with regard to stuffed poultry products. Both these products,
stuffed poultry and chicken pot pies, need to have considerable work done in lowering
their bacterial counts before they can be considered to be completely free of any food
MICROBIOLOGY OF SHELL EGGS
Shell eggs are attacked by a wide variety of microorganisms. Mold growth on the
exterior and interior of shell eggs is often encountered. Moldy eggs result from the
infestation of storage facilities with mold spores, and this condition develops more
rapidly when there are improper storage conditions that lead to sweating of the eggs.
This condition can be prevented by proper sanitation and good storage practices. A
wide variety of rots are encountered in shell eggs. They develop most commonly from
dirty shells, the washing process, and from bacterial infections in the hens. Inadequate
refrigeration will, of course, accelerate the development of rots. Green whites, caused
by certain types of feed, are often confused with green rots. Green rots develop in eggs
from hens infected with Pseudomonas organisms. Green rots can be differentiated
from green whites by the use of an ultraviolet light (black light). The incidence of rots
can be reduced by the production of clean eggs and the use of adequate refrigeration.
Section IV. MICROBIOLOGY OF WATERFOODS
2-10. MICROBIOLOGY OF FISH
The flesh of freshly killed healthy fish is usually sterile. (Fish are waterfoods.)
The contamination and subsequent spoilage results from the introduction of
microorganisms when the fish are dressed. The slime layer and abdominal organs both
contain many spoilage organisms, so it is essential that the contamination of the flesh
be kept to a minimum. The rate at which spoilage develops can be materially retarded
by the use of adequate refrigeration. Ice is still extensively used to refrigerate fish. The
use of ice manufactured from potable water (water fit to drink) is essential. Antibiotics
and chlorine are now commonly added to ice used to chill fish. The use of these two
agents will materially lengthen the storage life of fresh fish.