the pubis or aitch bone. A portion of the pubis is exposed when a beef carcass is split
into sides. The split is through the symphysis pubis. The exposed portion of the pubis
is known as the aitch bone.
1-10. GENERAL TERMS
General red meat terms with which the veterinary food inspection specialist must
be familiar are listed and described below.
a. Red Meats. Beef, pork, veal, lamb, and calf are considered red meats.
b. Bovine. Of, relating to, or like an animal of the genus Bos, for example a cow
c. Ovine. Of, resembling, or characteristic of sheep.
d. Porcine. Of or similar to swine or pig.
1-11. CARCASS TERMS
a. Carcass. A carcass is a slaughtered animal after the removal of the head,
hide, and viscera. The dressed and eviscerated carcass is limited to two sides derived
from the same animal.
b. Packer Style. A carcass without the head, kidneys and practically free of
c. Sides. The dressed and eviscerated carcass is split on the kill floor through
the center of the spinal column. This cut divides the carcass into two equal halves or
sides. Normally beef and pork carcasses are split into sides, but ovine, veal and calf
carcasses may or may not be split.
d. Serous Membrane. The serous membrane lines all of the body cavities,
which do not open to the outside. The plate, flank, and skirt are examples of cuts of
beef that are covered with serous membrane.
e. Stifle Joint. This is the juncture of the distal end of the femur and the
proximal end of the tibia/fibula and the patella. It is the joint between the hip and the
hock. The stifle joint corresponds to the human knee.
f. Periosteum. Around the bone; a thin tough connective tissue that covers the
outer surface of bones. During boning it may stay attached to the lean or it may adhere
to the bone. Two places it can be found are the medial surface of the beef clod and